Act of Foundation
I. Principles and Objectives
Founded by Freud, and after Lacan, psychoanalysis persists through their discourse. But this continuity presupposes the additional act of developing other kinds of links among psychoanalysts.
A new type of connection, already anticipated through a variety of endeavors, can now find an appropriate setting in a movement to be named:
Convergencia, Lacanian Movement for Freudian Analysis.*
This movement has the following objectives:
1) To advance the treatment of crucial questions in psychoanalysis, which cannot occur without questioning the basis of its clinical practice.
2) To multiply and stimulate ties among practitioners in order to facilitate exchange and discussion.
3) To confront the harmful effects of the fragmentation present in the international Lacanian movement without installing the pyramidal and authoritarian structure of a supra-association.
We do not necessarily consider multiplicity to be a shortcoming. Convergencia shall attempt to preserve this diversity without totalizing or unifying it. Convergencia will hold to the principle of a fruitful difference present in this multiplicity, thus ratifying the diverse organizational modalities of each association member. We acknowledge the diversity, sometimes historic, sometimes geographical, of the various positions of associations.
We note that each of these institutions legitimate themselves either from an aspect in the real of the cure, or from a thesis supported in one of the stages of Lacan's teaching in rereading Freud. In this respect, we recognize that Freud and Lacan constantly reformulated and recast their theory without systematizing it, that is to say, remaining aware of the paradoxes that could arise from this fact.
Thus, we understand that the different institutional positions are, in their diversity, the effects of this teaching. Further, we assume that this differentiation cannot be reduced solely to the effects of an imaginary transference onto the person of a master or founder.
We note as well that transmission by text has become today a dominating modality in the dissemination of Lacan's teaching. However, we recognize that transference onto the text operates in psychoanalysis only to the extent that it is supported by an enunciation, where knowledge (savoir) is interrogated through the didactic effect of each individual's psychoanalysis.
These facts support the founding of an inter-linguistic movement. Moreover, the recognition of difference among languages enriches the work in psychoanalysis and permits one to avoid the hegemony of any one language over the others. Thus, we will examine the effects produced on transference by psychoanalytic texts in translation and in their original language.
It is important to maintain that, through its specific rationality, psychoanalysis, as "daughter of science", is summoned to make the subject appear at the very place where science forecloses it, breaking with any doctrine that would justify itself on the basis of the realism of universals.
It will be just as important to offer to the analysts here assembled the possibility of constituting a political force for supporting their social registration in the various contexts where they act. To that end, one shall not cease recalling Freud's affirmation that psychoanalysis is a lay profession, a condition sine qua non for avoiding a fossilization of its discourse and for insuring a constant reinvention of the Freudian truth.
The formation and the nomination of analysts fall within the competence of each of the associations of Convergencia. Our movement will facilitate the handling of this issue. Our movement would proceed towards entropy and redundancy if it did not account for the differences generated by this principle. Convergencia will sanction the principle of a plurality of heterogeneous links among associations and participating analysts.
II. Stakes of this act of foundation.
We do not situate this act of foundation solely in relation to problems found within the analytic institution, which include: nonparticipation in the analytic movement, the non-affiliation of analysts to analytic associations, the diminution of unique contributions (because of coercive group-think), and the dispersion into myriad groups.
As psychoanalysts, we are committed to finding an adequate response to today's new forms of civilization's discontent. In our opinion, they result from misrecognizing that the sexual relation "does not cease not to be written", as Lacan has demonstrated.
Thus, we can characterize this discontent as including:
a) The predominance of segregative violence (a trend noted by Lacan) that widens social gaps and violates human dignity.
b) The set of discourses that produce social practices that aim to misrecognize, through any means, the real of psychic conflict where emerges the dimension of the subject as divided by the presence of the unconscious. The proliferation of the psychotherapeutic ideology, which we oppose, is the most obvious example. This ideology stems from the subservience of "psy" practices to the capitalist discourse, a result anticipated by Lacan.
c) These practices are prominently produced by the techno-sciences, when they efface the dimension of the subject. Distinguished by the production of proofs, which are thought to substitute for truth, these techno-sciences claim to build a world without limits where all would ultimately become possible. This kind of discourse promotes a disavowal of the impossible.
d) By contrast, religion makes do with sealing over the lack that engenders the division of the subject. It accomplishes this by assigning meaning to the real and by offering guarantees of a better future. Indeed, in our day, religion widens schisms, which are accompanied by the jouissance found in totalizing or sectarian discourses. It is not in being opposed to the Enlightenment that Religion will be able to limit the desubjectivizing effects of the discourse of Science.
e) All of these discourses produce universal statements that aim to guarantee their truth, and in so doing, they systematically avoid the dimension of enunciation. Further, the globalization imposed by neo-liberal ideology, in proposing universal ready-made objects of jouissance, threatens subjectivization and the possibility of creating metaphor.
f) The discontent that concretizes the action of these discourses testifies to a marked increase in the secular wish for an attack on the paternal function.
g) These discourses accentuate the discontent that they themselves incite by misrecognizing the historical dimension. They most often deny the past and reduce memory to a simple classification, ignoring the repression entailed in any historical inventory and the forgetting it perpetuates of certain cuts.
III. Definition of the position of member and of the protocols of admission of the associations.
1) Principles regulating the membership of the associations.
a) Convergencia is comprised of associations and, at its inception, by those who signed the Act of Foundation.
b) Convergencia neither constitutes itself as a supra-association nor as a confederation.
c) Convergencia, as a new link among associations, cannot interfere in the affairs of member associations.
d) If eventual and transitory majorities and minorities within the General Liaison Committee occur, Convergencia will make every effort to prevent the minority from leaving this community of work.
2) Principles regulating the admission of associations.
a) The moment of admission is considered as an occasion of work, as much for the association asked to ratify an admission as for the association that requests it.
b) The candidate association may notify either the Local Liaison Committee or the General Liaison Committee of its request.
c) The admission of an association is defined as the passage from the status of candidate association to that of rightful member. This admission will occur at the end of a period to be determined case by case, and involves the candidate association sharing its work.
d) An association that wishes to be part of Convergencia must engage in a project of work and develop it with at least three associations chosen among those who already belong to Convergencia, or within the Local Liaison Committee (see IV, 2a).
e) To be included in the collective of Convergencia as a new member, the candidate association must obtain two-thirds votes of the General Liaison Committee.
3) Responsibilities of the member association:
a) It supports, in its entirety, the terms of the Act of the Foundation.
b) It organizes the activities of Convergencia by joining, if possible, a Local Liaison Committee and contributes to, distributes information about, and supports these activities financially.
c) It makes an effort to broaden Convergencia by encouraging new members to join.
4) The place of analysts who do not belong to a member association of Convergencia.
a) They will participate one by one in all the activities of Convergencia, notably in the Local or Regional Liaison Committees and in the various Work Committees. Despite their participation, non-associated analysts will not have the right to vote.
b) Convergencia acknowledges that the decision of participating or not participating in an association is singular and personal. Convergencia shall not function as a supra-association nor will participating in its activity give any guarantee of membership.
IV. Modalities of Organization.
1) The General Liaison Committee
a) The General Liaison Committee is comprised of delegates from each member association, which designates a titular delegate and two replacements. Each association has one vote.
b) The General Liaison Committee meets one time per year, alternatively in Europe and in America. It acts as the decisional body of Convergencia and can make a decision only if at least two thirds of the delegates of the association members are present. Decisions are made by a simple majority vote, except those specified in the present statutes that require a different majority.
c) The General Liaison Committee creates focused Work Committees whose objectives will conform to the spirit of Convergencia. These Committees are comprised of at least four member associations working in cartel and of any other individuals or associations wishing to participate.
2) The Local and Regional Committees
a) The Local or Regional Committee (the other modality of liaison within Convergencia) links the associations of a city, region, or country, without necessarily placing them in a hierarchy. A Liaison Committee is comprised of at least three association members. If this condition is not fulfilled, the concerned associations will refer to a third member of their choice. This condition does not apply to Committees already formed at the Foundation's inception.
b) These Committees are sites where work is advanced and where the administration of Convergencia is accomplished. The non-associated analysts may contribute to the work that is realized there. The different Liaison Committees may form networks.
c) Decisions are adopted in these Committees, when necessary, by a simple majority vote, following the principle: one association, one vote. In this case, the presence of delegates representing at least two thirds of the associations of the Committee is required.
d) Since Convergencia does not have, at least for the moment, its own financial resources, the different Liaison Committees will take responsibility for organizing each time as they occur the financing of these activities, each participating association giving each time an equal contribution.
3) Means and Ends
a) Since our aim is to stimulate exchange among psychoanalysts, it is clear that productivity flows from the encounter and the various modes of speech. To achieve this objective, all available means of communication will be used.
b) Convergencia will announce, as soon as possible, its activities via various bulletins.
V. Legitimate use of the name.
a) So that an activity (cartel, work group, seminars, and days of local work) can claim to be a part of Convergencia and be set down in the various bulletins, it suffices that two member associations participate. For activities of a more significant order (congress and publications beyond the local bulletin), at least three associations shall participate with the advice of the nearest Regional Liaison Committee.
b) Membership in Convergencia can be displayed in the heading of each association; and each association can use Convergencia as a conduit for publicizing its principal activities, a right which shall not occur without actual membership and which ends if an association withdraws.
c) In each country where our movement will have spread, the Local Liaison Committee will handle the legal means of assuring the exclusivity of the name: Convergencia, Lacanian Movement for Freudian Analysis. This should also be the case at the international level.
VI. Statutory Modifications.
a) The present act of foundation contains the directing principles that attempt to define the spirit in which the movement of Convergencia has been instituted, as well as the organizational modalities.
b) The General Liaison Committee can make a statutory modification, providing that it obtains a two-thirds majority of votes of the member associations and that this modification does not contravene the spirit that governed the foundation of Convergencia. Each proposition of statuary modification shall be announced in advance and must appear on the agenda of the General Liaison Committee.
c) The dissolution of Convergencia requires a favorable vote of seventy-five per cent of the association members.
Lines of work for the starting up of activities.
Work Committees will be created to treat the following points (which could also treated by the Liaison Committees):
a) The issue of the analyst's formation and its guarantees.
b) The problems raised by obtaining and defending the "title" of psychoanalyst, according to different political contexts.
c) The issues raised by the publication and translation of Freud and Lacan's written works, as well as the questions raised by the transcriptions of Lacan's oral teaching and the publishing of Freud's unpublished work.
d) The consequences of importing models and concepts, drawn from the most recent contributions of scientific discovery, into the theoretical corpus of psychoanalysis.
e) The problems raised by the dissemination of psychoanalysis, by the disaffiliation of analysts, and by the fragmentation of institutions.
f) The possibility of creating a periodic bulletin of Convergencia and the issues raised by the multiplicity of languages.
g) To envisage having an international meeting in Paris in the year 2001, whose theme will be determined by the General Liaison Committee.
This Act of the Foundation of Convergencia was signed and ratified on October 3, 1998 in Barcelona, Spain by the following Associations (each of them represented by their delegate, convened in the General Liaison Committee):
Agrupo Institución Psicoanalítica (Argentina)
Analyse Freudienne (France)
Apertura. Estudio, Investigación y Transmisión en Psicoanálisis (Spain)
Après Coup (United States)
Associaçáo Psicanalitica de Porto Alegre (Brazil)
Association Freudienne Internationale (France)
Associazione Cosa Freudiana (Italy)
Associazione Psicanalitica Lacaniana Italiana (Italy)
Associazion Für Die Freud'sche Psychoanalyse (Germany)
Cartels Constituants de l'Analyse Freudienne (France)
Centre de Recherches en Psychanalyse (France)
Colégio de Psicanálise de Bahía (Brazil)
Coût Freudien (France)
Dimensions de la Psychanalyse (France)
El Laço Analítico do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
Escuela de Psicoanálisis de Tucumán (Argentina)
Escuela de Psicoanálisis Sigmund Freud (Argentina)
Escuela Freudiana de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
Escuela Freudiana de la Argentina (Argentina)
Escuela Freudiana de Montevideo (Uruguay)
Escuela Freudiana del Ecuador (Ecuador)
Espace Analytique (France)
Espacio Psicoanalítico de Rosario (Argentina)
Fondation Européenne pour la Psychanalyse (France)
Fundacíon Discurso Freudiano Esc. de Psicoanálisis (Argentina)
Fundación Psicoanalítica Madrid 1987 (Spain)
Grupo de Psicoanalísis de Tucumán (Argentina)
Institución Psicoanalítica de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
Intersecçao psicanalítica do Brazil (Brazil)
Intersecciones Espacio de Transmisión Psicoanalítica (Argentina)
Invenció Psicoanalítica (Spain)
Jornada Freudiana (Spain)
Le Cercle Freudien (France)
Letra, Grupo Psicoanalítco (Argentina)
Maiêutica Florianópolis Instituçao Psicanalítica (Brazil)
Mayéutica Institución Psicoanalítica (Argentina)
Praxis Lacaniana Formaçao em Escola (Brazil)
Psychanalyse Actuelle (France)
Recorte de Psicanálise (Brazil)
Seminaires Psychanalytiques de Paris (France)
Seminario Psicoanalítico de Tucumán (Argentina)
Sociéte de Psychanalyse Freudienne (France)
Traço Freudiano Veredas Lacanianas (Brazil)
Triempo, Institución Psicoanalítica (Argentina)